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All About Antibody Forms

Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and recombinant antibodies (rAbs) represent a collection of invaluable tools for life science research and numerous applications (WB, IHC, IF, FCM, ELISA…).

To access the complete collection of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in bio-cane, please follow the following link: primary antibody-secondary antibody. To know more about antibody forms, you can also browse

In addition, each form has advantages compared to its counterparts:

A. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs)

pAbs exhibit multi-epitope binding properties making these reagents ideal for many applications. Its clonal and biophysical diversity allows for greater sensitivity and usefulness in certain types of applications and in the life sciences.

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The limited supply of pAbs limits their attractiveness, and the use of controls and standards in experiments is essential to ensure reproducibility.

B. Hybridoma Monoclonal Antibody (mAbs)

mAbs are products of the fusion of sphenocytes and myeloma cells prepared according to a standard protocol. This process begins by injecting an antigen into a mouse or other mammal that elicits an immune response. A type of white blood cell called a B cell produces antibodies that bind to the injected antigen. These resulting antibodies were then pooled with mice.

C. Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody (rAbs)

rAbs were engineered in vitro beyond the limits of the immune system using recombinant DNA technology. The antibody gene is isolated and then inserted into a plasmid DNA vector, and the resulting plasmid is transformed or transfected into an expression host such as a bacterial, yeast, or mammalian cell line (a process similar to classical recombinant protein production).

Brief Introduction To Antibodies

Antibodies (Abs) are blood glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily and constitute most of the gamma globulin fraction of the blood protein. Nevertheless, they also can be found in other body fluids. To know more about antibodies, you can also visit

Antibody classes or isotypes and functions:

There are 5 classes of antibodies with different functions: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD. 

• IgG antibodies are the most common and important. They circulate in the blood and other body fluids and protect against invading bacteria and viruses. The binding of IgG antibodies to bacterial or viral antigens activates other immune cells that pick up and destroy the antigen. As the smallest antibody, IgG moves easily across cell membranes.

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• IgM is in the blood and is the largest antibody. It combines five Y-shaped units. It works similarly to IgG in antigen protection, but because of its size, it cannot cross membranes.

• IgA antibodies are found in tears, saliva, and mucus, and in secretions from the respiratory, reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts. IgA neutralizes bacteria and viruses and prevents them from entering the body or reaching internal organs.

• IgE occurs only in mammals. IgE is the least common isotype and is synthesized by plasma cells. IgE also plays an important role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests itself in various allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, food allergies, certain types of chronic urticaria, and atopic dermatitis.

• IgD is present in species from cartilaginous fish to humans. IgD functions as a signal for the activation of B cells. When activated, the cells are ready to protect the body. During B-cell differentiation, IgM is a proprietary isotype expressed by immature B-cells.